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Researchers reconstruct the face of a Pictish man whose tomb was discovered 30 years ago — Realm of History

Back in 1986, archaeologists excavating a site at Bridge of Tilt near Blair Atholl, in Scotland, came across a long cist burial. And inside this cist-type tomb (comprising a stone-built compartment), they were able to discover the remains of a 40-year old man. Analysis of the skeletal remnants during the time revealed that the man…

via Researchers reconstruct the face of a Pictish man whose tomb was discovered 30 years ago — Realm of History

A CRITICAL STUDY OF NATIVE AMERICAN ART AND HOW EUROPEAN AMERICANS HAD TO DESTROY THEIR CULTURE BY EXTERMINATING AND DESTROYING THE FIGHTING CAPACITY OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN OR FIRST NATION PEOPLES: AN APPRECIATION OF THE CONTINUING FIGHT BY FIRST NATION COMMUNITIES TO DEFEND THEIR CULTURAL HERITAGE: PART 3

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In my concluding article about Native Americans I will be considering the whole range of Culture developed by Native Americans and in Particular considering the contributions of two Art Historians who have paid close attention to First Nation Culture, Janet C Berlo and Ruth B Phillips.

” A century ago most Non-natives had become convinced that aboriginal arts and cultures would soon disappear (They were wrong) .Yet today these Arts are thriving and receiving renewed attention”. [1].

” The advent of the Europeans was the most Violent and traumatic of the cross cultural encounters and the most challenging to existing aboriginal concepts and styles of Art”.[2].

Berlo and Phillips show how other forms of culture like Dance and Oral History have been diminished because of White culture mainly Painting and Performance art.

” One of the effects of Western domination over North American cultures has been to devalue the importance of other expressive forms such as Oratory and Dance”. [3].

” Because Early Europeans frequently misunderstood the nature of aboriginal political organisation or wished to interfere with political structures that hindered their colonial aspirations they often assigned in accurate names”. [4].

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Berlo and Phillips insist in their overall review of Aboriginal art that it is preferable to use First Nation as a description of the semi colonial peoples whose Country it is.

” Terms such as native , aboriginal and First Nation are often preferred because they convey more clearly the primacy of the indigenous peoples as occupiers of the North American Continent”. [5].

” To be legally defined as an Indian and to have status in Canada or the USA one must be listed as a member of a recognised band or tribe. The control of Indigenous population by such terms of enumeration is a classic tool of Colonial domination”.[6].

Berlo and Phillips have shown the true role of American Imperialism and its role to subjugate peoples whose Country it is. They are in fact prisoners in their own country , an oppressive and barbaric act by Imperialism whose only role is rule , divide and conquer.

” It is also a strategy of exclusion that denies Native Identity to many peoples whose ancestry is no more or less mixed than those who are legally recognised by laws and policies that derive from outmoded racial theories”. [7].

” For more than a century both Governments (Canada and the USA with Imperialist dominated regimes) used their power to remove thousands of native children from their families to residential schools mostly missionary run”.[8].

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Berlo and Phillips in their continuing commentary show how Imperialism unleashed Death ,Pestilence and destruction on to the Native American peoples.

” It is a tribute to the strength and tenacity of Pueblo people that they have survived in order to flourish in the late 20th Century for the History of the European entry into the Pueblo world was a History of Death , pestilence and destruction (That is the European American’s contribution to culture)”. [9].

” The Spaniard Francisco Vaquez deCoronado and his men set forth from Mexico in 1540 in search of the rumoured golden cities of the North over just a few months they gave the pueblo’s a taste of pillaging , slavery and murder”. [10].

Berlo and Phillips mention one of the outstanding artists of the Pueblo people Maria Martinez.

” To the Western Art world this may seem to be a misrepresentation however when the Pueblo World view where Community , Sharing balance and Harmony are valued over individual achievements, ( something the modern European American artist never had in his continual search for more and more personal wealth)”. [11].

” The abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock was influenced by the gestural quality  of the sand painters Art and his action paintings reflects his interest and technique of scattering materials freehand onto a prepared surface”. [12].

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Berlo and Phillips comment on Treaties negotiated and of course broken. American and Canadian Capitalism remained governments of oppression and Liars to boot , promising one thing and doing another.

” The treaties negotiated by the British in Canada resulted in equivalent losses of Lands and in confinement to Reservations”. [13].

” The peoples of these regions and their Arts suffered unusually rapid alterations during colonisation and settlement by Euro Americans”. [14].

Groups of Native Americans and First Nation peoples were forced into Reservations their culture and way of life attacked.

” Groups were forcibly resettled onto Reservations , their traditional ways of Life fractured especially for Men. By the late 19th Century the old ways of warrior societies and seasonal migration were in tatters”. [15].

” Most well known of the late 19th Century graphic arts are hundreds of drawings made by Cheyenne and Kiowa Warriors incarcerated from 1875-1878 at Fort Marion in Florida”. [16].

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To conclude Berlo and Phillips show how the Plains culture of the Buffalo had been hunted to extinction and the Plains Indians all but destroyed but their culture remained carried on by their Kith and Kin in spite of great poverty and starvation caused by the Colonialists. Like the French Revolutionaries before them they only advocated Freedom , Fraternity and Liberty to the Class they represented never to the Semi Colonial peoples who inhabited Haiti and Canada and the USA.

” In 1869 the Transcontinental Railroad was completed within 15 years. The enormous herds of Buffalo that had freely roamed the Plains had been hunted to the brink of extinction. within just a few years the major source of Food , clothing and Shelter for plains people virtually disappeared.”.[17].

” At the end of the 19th Century a Religious cult known as the Ghost Dance flourished briefly ( This was the Dance at Wounded Knee that led to the slaughter , Rape , mutilation of Women and Children. A True Holocaust). this was an indigenous response to the cultural holocaust taking place throughout the vast lands of the West”.[18].

This concludes my series of 3 articles into the First Nation peoples , their History and their Continuing fight to establish a truly aboriginal culture.

FOOTNOTES

  1. OXFORD HISTORY OF ART : NATIVE NORTH AMERICAN ART. JANET C BERLO AND RUTH B PHILLIPS. PG. 1
  2. DITTO.PG.4
  3. DITTO.PG.16
  4. DITTO.PG.18
  5. DITTO.PG.19
  6. DITTO.PG.19
  7. DITTO.PG.19-20
  8. DITTO.PG.20
  9. DITTO.PG.47-8
  10. DITTO.PG.48
  11. DITTO.PG.59
  12. DITTO.PG.62
  13. DITTO.PG.100
  14. DITTO.PG.108
  15. DITTO.PG.124
  16. DITTO.PG.125
  17. DITTO.PG.127
  18. DITTO.PG.128

A series of Ptolemaic buildings and a tunnel unearthed in Alexandria, Egypt — Realm of History

21 years of excavating at the Shalallat Gardens area in Alexandria have come to fruition for the Greek archaeologists at Hellenic Institute for the Research of Alexandrian Culture. The result (as of now) pertains to the discovery of a long, carved tunnel unearthed at a depth of more than 30 ft. This tunnel complements the…

via A series of Ptolemaic buildings and a tunnel unearthed in Alexandria, Egypt — Realm of History