PAUL SIGNAC (1862-1935) ANARCHIST AND REVOLUTIONARY WHO TOGETHER WITH GEORGES SEURAT WERE THE ARCHITECTS OF POINTILLISM AND DIVISIONISM IN FRANCE AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY: BY LAURENCE HUMPHRIES.

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Paul Signac was a close friend and supporter of Georges Seurat  , revolutionary artists who were also politically active. Signac was a well known Anarchist and he explains right at the beginning the practice of Divisionism. “Is an artist not someone who strives to create unity within variety by the rhythm  of colours and tones and who puts science at the service of his feelings”. [1].

Signac like Seurat believed that they were Neo Impressionists , he further comments “Neo Impressionism des not stipple but divides , yet to divide is to assure all benefits of Luminosity of colour and Harmony”. [2].

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Signac was able to show using the scientific approach how important Line and the right application of Colours were. “This informed about line and colour , the artist will certaintly determine the linear and chromatic composition of the painting by using the dominant directions, tones and hues appropriate for the subject he is about to depict”. [3].

Light and colour were important . This is clarified by a number of commentators. ” If these painters who best fit the epithet Chromo-Luminarism adopted the name of Neo-impressionism , to give homage to the effect of their precursors and to under diverging methods the common goal of light and colour”. [4]. “Not only did they eliminate from their pallets all mixes of confused colour but they also avoided sullying the purity of their colours”.[5]. The following paintings establish this fact beyond any doubt.

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Paul Signac 1863-1935 - French Neo-impressionist painter - Tutt'Art@ (39)

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Harmony was one of the important factors in Divisionism and pointillism. “In a general way we can admit that Neo Impressionist work is more harmonious than that of the Impressionists”.[6]. As I argued in my article on Georges Seurat pointillism was a more scientific approach to art making sure light , colour and Harmony fit into place unlike the very shallow pictures of Monet and Renoir.

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Paul Signac - La calanque _The bay_

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The last picture I have shown is very significant because Signac has used Geometric patterns to show how a right and scientific approach taking all factors into consideration like distance colour and harmony will create the right perspective. ” Signac drew upon Seurat’s very valuable contributions , the methodical and balanced separation of the elements”. [7].

As well as being a very accomplished artist Signac was a very good writer on Art History . In his very long article “From Eugene Delacroix to Neo Impressionism” Signac establishes the method of Pointillism or Divisionism as Seurat liked to refer to it.

” The Neo Impressionist does not stipple , he divides and dividing involves guaranteeing all benefits of light ,colouration and harmony by

1) an optical mixture of pigment which are pure

2) The separation of different Elements

3) The balance of these elements and their proportion. To obtain this colourful and luminous vividness ,the neo impressionist only make uses of pure colours , which are close to the colours of the Prism.

To divide is to seek the strength and Harmony of colour by representing coloured light by its pure elements and by employing the optical mix of these separated pure elements measured out according to the essential laws of contrast and graduation”. [8]. I have used the full quote to demonstrate the Revolutionary concept of Divisionism.

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Paul_Signac_-_The_Port_of_Saint-Tropez_-_Google_Art_Project

In this short article on Paul Signac I have explained the revolutionary aspect of Divisionism/Pointillism which would lead to art appreciated by all leading to Toulouse-Lautrec and Van Gogh who used Colour to such effect and had completed what the great Colourist Eugene Delacroix set out to achieve ‘Art in the Public sphere’ which would be appreciated by all classes in Society.

1) PAUL SIGNAC  PARKSTONE PRESS INTERNATIONAL FRONTSPIECE

2) DITTO. PG 10

3) DITTO PG   12

4) DITTO PG 152

5) DITTO PG  154

6) DITTO  PG 162

7) DITTO   PG 178

8) ART IN THEORY 1815-1900 PAUL SIGNAC FROM EUGENE DELACROIX TO NEO IMPRESSIONISM PGS 978-982.

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Thomas Hobbes (filósofo)

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Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes


Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

magdaleneThomas Hobbes nació el 5 de abril de 1588 en Malmesbury, en Wiltshire, en Inglaterra. Su padre era vicario de Charlton y Westport, localidades cercanas a Malmesbury, pero una disputa mantenida a la puerta de la iglesia con otro vicario, provocó su traslado a Londres. Como consecuencia de ello, a los siete años de edad, Thomas Hobbes, quedó bajo la tutela de su tío Francis, hermano mayor de su padre, que se dedicaba al comercio y no tenía más familia.

Hobbes realizará sus primeros estudios en Malmesbury y posteriormente en Westport, en la escuela privada de Robert Latimer, en donde mostró sus dotes intelectuales en los estudios clásicos. A los catorce años, en 1603, financiados sus estudios por su tío Francis, ingresa en Magdalen Hall, Oxford, donde predominaba entonces la filosofía escolástica de inspiración aristotélica, por la que no mostrará…

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FROM THE FIGURATIVE TO THE ABSTRACT: AN EXHIBITION OF MODERN ARAB ART AT THE BRITISH MUSEUM LONDON: REVIEWER LAURENCE HUMPHRIES

I recently attended an Exhibition at the British Museum on Modern Arab Art. It was very informative and interesting and in Countries oppressed and Bombed by American Imperialism and its allies it was good to see such imaginative and interesting art developing in several countries.

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M Guedmini was the first artist I looked at on the 4th Floor of the British Exhibition. He was born in Djerba Tunisia and trained in Paris at the Ecole Beaux art. His figurative art shows groups of figures on canvass and paper.

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Ossip Zadkine (1890-1967) used lithographs , most of the artists preferred to use crayon , paper although some of them used Canvass. Zadkine was born in Vitbesk BelaRussia.

“Deux Figures from the series Eurogaesischee ,African and Greek art using the cubists angular features , fled Paris during the Second World war because of persecution of his Jewish ancestry”. [1].

The next artist I considered was  Michael Basbous (1921-1981). “Basbous an influential member of the Lebanese artistic community”. [2]. You can see the two local figures using charcoal on paper. “Sculptures made from local stone , Bronze and wood”. [3].

As the Exhibition notes point out “He also drew prodigiously in charcoal ,pencil or Ink”. [4]. After the revolution in 1958 Basbous returned to Radona the village where he was born and worked. “His work was interrupted during the Lebanese Civil War 1976-1990”. [5].

War is and was always present in the Middle East and North Africa. Imperialism has sought to take control of the region either by fomenting war or using its Proxy allies in the region.

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Marwan Kassab Bachi , known simply as Marwan was born in 1934 in Damascus, he studied in Berlin where he now Lives. “Although influenced by French Impressionism it was distinctive Arab Art”. [5].  “In recent years Marwan has been working in watercolours”. [6].

Safeya Binzgar was born in 1940 in Jeddah Saudi Arabia. She was educated in Egypt and England . The notes refer to her love of costumes and Jewelry. “A love of tradition and a desire for costumes and Jewelry . At St Martins School of Art in London she learnt printmaking”. [7].

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Shafic Abboud (1926-2004) was born in Lebanon and studied at the Libanaise des Beaux-arts in Beirut. He moved to Paris in 1947 and lived in both Beirut and Paris. As the notes indicate Abboud like other artists in the Middle East had to flee wars and conflicts. “during the civil war he remained in Paris .Shafic Abboud was a close friend of the Syrian Poet Al Ahman Said. Much of his Lithographs are of abstract compositions”. [7].

Rafa Al Nasiri who died in 2008 was born in Tikrit in Iraq. He went to the fine arts in Baghdad. Iraq known for its great cultural History has being  levelled and destroyed by war and Bombs. The country is now a fiefdom ruled by warring Tribal groups influenced by American Imperialism and its allies. So much of the Art and precious objects have either been destroyed by either the Proxy allies like Saudi Arabia and Egypt or the Daash like ISIS or ALQAEDA.

“Rafa Al Nasiri was greatly inspired by the poetry of Palestinian Poet Mahmoud Darwish”. [8].

“He went to Bejing China to study graphic arts -woodcuts and Watercolours”. [9].

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As you can see from his work “The focus of his work was in the Arabic Letter”. [10]. He has since moved to Amman in Jordan as a full time Artist. “Inspired by Arabic Poetry”.[11].

The Last artist on display is Nabil Nahas born in 1949 in Beirut in the Lebanon .You will notice his designs are geometric in design with a very clear perspective. “interplay of Geometric design”. [12].

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 As the notes indicate Nahas produced “A Mural in 1973 for Chemistry Department at University of Yale”. [12].

This review has shown the varied and talented artists living or still working in the Region. Many Art Historians forget the contribution of artists from the Global South. Many of them still have  Euro Centric views on Art . The British Museum must be congratulated in showing aspects of Modern Arab art which shows the use of Arabic lettering combined with the use of Crayon, charcoal and Watercolours. There is much that western artists can learn from these important influences.

REFERENCES

1) NOTES FROM THE FIGURATIVE TO THE ABSTRACT BRITISH MUSEUM.

2) DITTO

3) DITTO

4) DITTO

5) DITTO

6) DITTO

7) DITTO

8) DITTO

9) DITTO

10) DITTO

11) DITTO

12) DITTO

Karl Marx (Filósofo)

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El paulatino y ya casi evidente fracaso de supuestas aplicaciones prácticas de sus ideas políticas y económicas, no debe ensombrecer la talla de Karl Marx como pensador revolucionario, cuya obra significó en las ciencias socioeconómicas un vuelco similar al producido por Freud en la psicología o Einstein en la física. La cristalización y dogmatización de su brillante propuesta intelectual ha tenido un precio que la historia juzgará y él no hubiera avalado. Con Marx, la ética política deja de ser una ciencia infusa y la doctrina económica una velada defensa de intereses particulares. Después de él, la comunidad internacional ya no tiene excusas racionales para no avanzar hacia la justicia y la igualdad desde el análisis científico de los hechos, sus relaciones, causas y consecuencias.

Originalmente publicado en rememorandolahistoria.blogspot.com.es

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René Descartes

Rene Descartes , The Founder of Rationalism and a revolutionary in Scientific thought led the way in clearing out the Idealist Philosophy of Aristotle and Plato , He referred to them as Schoolmen by constructing a philosophy on his famous dictum the Cogito Ergo Sum he established the basis and later development of Materialist thought in the following Century , His doubting his existence was a unique way of resolving the Dilemma ‘I Think therefore I am’

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René DescartesRené Descartes


René Descartes (1596-1650)

Casa-natal-de-Descartes-hoy-museoDescartes nació el 31 de marzo de 1596 en La Haye, en la Turena francesa. Pertenecía a una familia de la baja nobleza, siendo su padre, Joachin Descartes, Consejero en el Parlamento de Bretaña. La temprana muerte de su madre, Jeanne Brochard, pocos meses después de su nacimiento, le llevará a ser criado en casa de su abuela materna, a cargo de una nodriza a la que permanecerá ligado toda su vida. Posteriormente hará sus estudios en el colegio de los jesuitas de La Flèche, hasta los dieciséis años, estudiando luego Derecho en la Universidad de Poitiers. Según la propia confesión de Descartes, tanto en el Discurso del método como en las Meditaciones, las enseñanzas del colegio le decepcionaron, debido a las numerosas lagunas que presentaban los saberes recibidos, a excepción de las matemáticas, en donde veía la posibilidad de encontrar…

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